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Conference-cum-Workshop on History, Science and Technology of Ancient Indian Glass

IIT Gandhinagar
21st—25th January, 2019

Academic Programs

The study of Ancient Indian Glass, involves scientific investigations as well as understanding in the right cultural perspective. A combination of such a strategy has not evolved fully in south Asia even though a larger history and ethnography of glass is noticed here. Further, there is a need of standardization of glass artifacts studies in terms of typology and technology among the various researchers.

Keeping in view of above objectives, Archaeological Sciences Centre, IITGN will be conducting a five day (including one day fieldtrip) Conference-cum-Workshop on ‘History, Science and Technology of Ancient Indian Glass’ from 21—25th January, 2019. This Conference-cum-Workshop aims to discuss the development of glass through the ages, literature/epigraphical references, typology, techniques and archaeometry involved in their study to interpret the past technology with the help of experts and scholars who are either archaeologists or scientists working in archaeology and allied disciplines.

Eminent scholars from around the world ( Shinu Abraham, Ivana Angelini, Ravindra Singh Bisht, Wijerathne Bohingamuwa, Sharmi Chakraborty, Kurush Dalal, Laure Dussubieux, Thomas Fenn, Maninder Singh Gill, Viswas Gogte, Bernard Gratuze, Sunil Gupta, Alok Kumar Kanungo, Jonathan M. Kenoyer, Jan Kock, Stephen Koob, Joanna Then-Obłuska, Thilo Rehren, V. Selvakumar, Ravindra Nath Singh, Torben Sode, Massimo Vidale and Bhuvan Vikrama), and craftsmen from Varanasi/Purdalpur and Kapadwanj will be the resource persons who will share their work and deliver lectures and carryout hands-on experiments for the participants on various aspects of ancient glass in the archaeological context. With pre-designed requested paper from the experts a book on Glass of South & South-East Asia: Archaeology, Ethnography and Global Connections will be published.

Registration Fee: Rs. 1500/- for student, Rs. 2500/- for staff and Rs. 5000/- for foreigner

Short Listing of Applications

We will be shortlisting about 50 young archaeologists (Post-Graduate students, Research Scholars, Faculty and Staff) and Ancient Glass Enthusiast dealing with excavations and study of glass (on the basis of the applicants CV and SOP) from the received applications in October 2018. The participants will be exposed to the various scientific studies of Ancient Glass.

Selected candidates will be notified via email in mid November 2018.

Conference-cum-Workshop Coordinator: Alok Kumar Kanungo


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Dr. Shinu Anna Abraham works as an Associate Professor at St Lawrence University. She is an archaeologist specializing in ancient Indian Ocean trade and its impact on the emergence of social complexity in early south India. She has done archaeological fieldwork in Egypt, Israel, India, and the US. Dr. Abraham has two ongoing research projects: the systematic survey of iron and glass production in Southern Andhra Pradesh, India, and the investigation of south India glass beads to reconstruct both Indian Ocean exchange patterns and ancient south Indian craft production processes. She is also interested in the archaeology of craft/technology, state formation, and archaeological theory. Dr. Abraham teaches Introduction to Archaeology as well as courses on ancient civilization, archaeology and identity, and archaeological method and theory. As senior editor, Dr. Abraham recently published Connections and Complexity: New Approaches to the Archaeology of South and Central Asia, by Left Coast Press in 2013. She was also co-editor of the special edition of the journal Archeological Research in Asia on Indian Ocean bead trade. She is currently working with Alok Kanungo, Thomas Fenn and Laure Dussubieux on an NSF-funded project in collaboration with IIT Gandhinagar aiming at determining possible regions of ancient glass production in India using elemental and isotope analysis.

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Dr. Ivana Angelini works as an Associate Professor in Geosciences for Cultural Heritage and Archaeometry at the University of Padua, Italy. She received her MSc in Chemistry from the University of Milan, a II level master in Polymer Science at the Politecnico of Milan and a PhD in Study and Conservation of Archaeological and Architectural Cultural Heritage at the University of Padua. She carried out her researches at the Earth Science Department in Milan (2001-2004) and at the Department of Geosciences in Padua (2006-2014); since 2015 she works at the Cultural Heritage Department. The scientific activity essentially concerns chemical, isotopic, mineralogical, texture and provenience studies of ancient material, with special interest for the protohistoric and early historical contexts. Her archaeometric researches are focused mainly on the study of vitreous materials, metals, slags, amber, bones, ivory and precious stones. Since 2002, she is author/co-author of 135 publications and she has presented more than 190 works at national and international congresses.

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Dr. Ravindra S. Bisht is associated as Visiting Professor with IIT Gandhinagar, Institute of Archaeology (Archaeological Survey of India) and, Institute of History of Art, Conservation and Museology (National Museum), New Delhi. He is known for his scholarship on Indus valley civilization and efforts to conserve Indian national monuments and museum establishments. His command over ancient literature in general and Sanskrit in particular is unparalleled among the archaeological community. Having served Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) and Governments of in Haryana and Punjab for 35 years he retired as Joint Director General of ASI in 2004. Since then, he has been concentrating on the excavation report of the world famous Harappan site of Dholavira, Gujarat. Some of the other important excavations led by him are Banawali in Haryana, Semthan in Jammu and Kashmir, Chechar and Sarai Mound Nalanda in Bihar, and, Sanghol in Punjab. Notable conservation work led by him is that of 11 monuments in Narnaul, the place where one of the first battles of Indian Rebellion of 1857 was fought by Pran Sukh Yadav and Rao Tula Ram against the British. Another area of work of Dr. Bisht was in setting up and maintenance of museums across the country. He has travelled widely to give lectures at various national and international forums and has published more than 10 books and four dozens of research articles. Recognizing his contribution Govt. of India conferred upon him the 4th civilian award of the country Padmashri in 2013.

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Dr. Wijerathne Bohingamuwa works as a Senior Lecturer in Archaeology in the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka. Having graduated from the Banaras Hindu University, in Archaeology (1993), Bohingamuwa moved to Deccan College in Pune, where he studied Prehistoric Archaeology for his Master’s Degree (1995). Then he worked as a Research Assistant at the Institute of Fundamental Studies (Kandy, Sri Lanka) (1995-1997). Bohingamuwa, then carried on to read for a MPhil at the University of Cambridge where he worked on Ancient Irrigation systems of Sri Lanka (1998). In 2017, Bohingamuwa completed his PhD from the University of Oxford on Sri Lanka’s Indian Ocean interactions and internal networks in premodern times. Between 1998 and 2002, Bohingamuwa served as a lecturer and visiting faculty member at Archaeology Departments at the Universities of Buddhasravaka, Rajarata and Kelaniya as well as the Postgraduate Institute of Archaeology, Sri Lanka. Since 2002, Bohingamuwa has been working as a Senior Lecturer at the Department of History and Archaeology at the University of Ruhuna. Bohingamuwa is a recipient of prestigious Cambridge Commonwealth Trust and Oxford Clarendon Scholarships. His long-term research interests lie in ancient irrigation system and agriculture of Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean maritime networks, Sri Lanka’s external connections and internal networks, and Indigenous communities and traditional knowledge systems of Sri Lanka.

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Dr. Sharmi Chakraborty works as a Fellow, Centre for Archaeological Studies & Training, Eastern India (An autonomous Institution of Government of West Bengal). Her area of academic interest is archaeology of the early historic period of India. She has primarily worked in the delta region of West Bengal. Her doctoral dissertation has been on the early historic site of Chandraketugarh (2000). She has been the codirector in a small-scale excavation in the site by ASI in the season 2009-10. She directed exploration in Bakreswar River valley a third order stream of Bhagirathi-Hugli River and conducted excavation in Paharpur (historic to early medieval) and Kusumjatra (chalcolothic) on its right and left Banks respectively. She has conducted ethnographic survey in different zones of West Bengal to understand the variability of archaeological ceramics. This has been published as a monograph (Ceramic Variability: An Ethnographic Perspective, 2018). She co-authored book with Gautam Sengupta and Sima Roy Chowdhury (Eloquent Earth: A Catalogue of Terracottas in State Archaeological Museum, West Bengal, 2007). She coedited a volume entitled Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia (2008). She is the editor of Pratna Samiksha (New Series), a peer-reviewed journal of archaeology that is brought out by her institute. On early historic beads she has published two papers “Beads from Chandraketugarh” (2006) and “Exploring the pattern of distribution of beads of early historic period of South Asia” (2011).

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Dr. Kurush F. Dalal works as an Assistant Professor (Archaeology) in Centre for Extra-Mural Studies, University of Mumbai. He did his post-graduation and PhD at the Department of Archaeology, Deccan College Post-Graduate & Research Institute, Pune. Dr. Dalal’s PhD was on the Early Iron Age in Rajasthan. Later his research interest shifted to the Early Medieval Period of the West Coast of India and since then he has excavated the sites of Sanjan and Chandore. These sites have completely changed the way we see the West Coast of India between the Early Medieval and Colonial Periods. The huge quantities and varieties of ceramics, coins and glass of West Asian and Chinese origins identified during the referred archaeological fieldworks have created a seriation which allows new chronological attributions to sites. The database has allowed archaeologists to identify over 25 coastal sites belonging to the Early Medieval Period. For last three years, Dr. Dalal has been Co-Directing the Salcette Explorations Project, an Urban Archaeology Project documenting the Archaeology of Mumbai. This has extended his interests from the Medieval into the Colonial Periods. His interests in archaeology is one of complete, thus maintains his reading and publications on memorial stones and ass-curse stones in India; dabble in numismatics, defense archaeology and architecture, ethnoarchaeology, culinary anthropology, food archaeology and other related subjects.

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Dr. Laure Dussubieux is a chemist specialized in the determination of the compositions of ancient artifacts made from synthesized or natural glass, metals and stones. She obtained her PhD in Chemistry from the University of Orléans (France) in 2001 with a dissertation focused on the use of laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to study the provenance and the circulation of ancient glass beads around the Indian Ocean. Prior to her appointment at the Field Museum, she was a post-doctoral fellow at the Smithsonian Institution (Museum Support Center, Maryland, USA) where she developed the application of LA-ICP-MS to the study of ancient gold and the use of portable X-Ray Fluorescence to survey cultural artifacts. Since 2004, she has managed the Elemental Analysis Facility (EAF) at the Field Museum and her current title is Research Scientist. At the EAF, in a little more than a decade, in addition of her own research on ancient glass from South and Southeast Asia, she facilitated more than 150 projects dealing with questions related to the archaeology of cultural production, interaction and exchange. She is also co-teaching (with P. Ryan Williams) a class about Analytical Archaeology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She is currently working with Alok Kanungo, Shinu Abraham and Thomas Fenn on an NSF-funded project in collaboration with IIT Gandhinagar aiming at determining possible regions of ancient glass production in India using elemental and isotope analysis.

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Dr. Thomas R. Fenn is an archaeologist with more than two decades of applying archaeological sciences methods and techniques to answering archaeological and anthropological questions. He has extensive archaeological sciences analytical training and experience, and specializes in examining questions of provenance and trade/exchange networks through the application of chemical and isotopic analyses to a variety of archaeological materials, but mainly glass and metals. Dr. Fenn obtained his Ph.D. in Anthropology (Archaeology) from the University of Arizona (Tucson, Arizona, USA), while also minoring in geosciences, and he also has a M.Sc. in Geology and Geochemistry. Dr. Fenn’s dissertation focused on the use of multi-collector – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) to collect isotopic data for study the provenance and movement of raw materials and finished goods (ceramics, metals and glass) in both the Old and New Worlds. Dr. Fenn is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Oklahoma. Dr. Fenn’s research covers a wide range of materials, regions and time periods with common threads of examining socio-economic and technological aspects of pyrotechnology and the derivative products. He is currently working with Alok Kanungo, Shinu Abraham and Laure Dussubieux on an NSF-funded project in collaboration with IIT Gandhinagar aiming at determining possible regions of ancient glass production in India using elemental and isotope analysis.

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Dr. Maninder Singh Gill is an art conservator and archaeological scientist based in Noida, India. He trained for a MA in Conservation at the National Museum Institute (NMI), and was later conferred with a PhD in Archaeological Science by the University College London (UCL). He has been working in the field of conservation in India since 1999, with a particular focus on art works and embellishments on monuments. His interests lie in the application of scientific methods for the analyses of art and archaeological materials. He has conducted research on a wide variety of artefacts and materials from the medieval to early modern period, including architectural glazed tiles, wall paintings, stucco work, and painted decorations in historic interiors. His research on glazed tiles has led him to examine the interrelations between glass and glaze production technologies, from the perspective of both archaeology and conservation.

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Dr. Vishwas D. Gogte did his PhD in Physical Chemistry from Poona University in 1975 and later joined Deccan College Post-Graduate & Research Institute as archaeo-chemist. After serving for about three decades, he retired as Professor in Archaeological Chemistry, Head of Archaeology Department and Joint Director of Deccan College in 2007. His research interests are maritime interaction in ancient times, XRD and AAS chemical studies of ancient material, technological studies of ancient pottery, ancient metallurgy of iron and copper, chemical analysis of ancient glass and relative dating on bones by fluorine method. Some of the noteworthy projects completed by him are Study of Iron Smelting and Pottery from the Megalithic burial sites from South India; XRD and Chemical Study of Pottery from India, Thailand, South Turkmenia; Relative dating of Archaeological Bones from India by Fluorine and Fossilization Process of Bones; Climatic Changes in Western and Northwestern India during the Quaternary : A Palaeopedological Approach; Scientific analysis of Early Historic Pottery from India and Southeast Asia; Excavations and Explorations of Ancient Port sites on west Coast of India. His excavations at Naikund in early 80s and at Chaul in early 21st century have been milestones in approaches of sciences in archaeology.

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Dr. Bernard Gratuze is Director of research at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), Institut de Recherche sur les Archéomatériaux, Centre Ernest-Babelon (IRAMAT-CEB), CNRS/Université d'Orléans, France. He received his PhD and the Habilitation for the direction of PhD, at the Analytical Sciences Department of Orléans University. His current research interest include the development of analytical protocols using laser ablation-inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for glass (as well as for lithic materials) to study their production and trade from Protohistory to the Modern Period. He studies glass making processes and recipes since the beginning of the second millennium BCE with particular interest for transition periods (e.g. change from soda plant ash fluxes toward natron at the beginning of the first millennium BCE or change from natron toward forest plant ashes fluxes at the end of the first millennium CE). With some of his colleagues, he recently identifies Indian's glass beads import in Western Europe at the beginning of the European Middle Ages (5th-6th centuries CE). Dr. Gratuze is a member of the Association Française pour l'Archéologie du Verre (AFAV) and the association Internationale pour l'Histoire du Verre (AIHV).

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Dr. Sunil Gupta is Director i/c at the Allahabad Museum, an autonomous institution of the Ministry of Culture, Government of India. Dr. Gupta completed his PhD in Archaeology from the Deccan College, Pune in 1998 on the subject of Archaeology of Sea Trade between the Roman Empire and India (1st century BCE to 3rd century CE). He has been Nehru Fellow at the Victoria and Albert Museum, UK (1997) and JSPS Post-Doctoral Fellow at the International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto (1998-99). Dr. Gupta has widely traveled, having done archaeological fieldwork in Japan, China and East Africa. He was co-director of excavations of the Early Historic port-site of Kamrej (Gujarat) in 2003 and Director of Excavations at the Gangetic site of Bankat (Allahabad District) in 2008. He has chaired sessions in international conferences and has been invited as PhD examiner by the universities of Uppsala (Sweden), Bergen (Norway) and Copenhagen (Denmark). Dr. Gupta has papers in refereed journals and in prestigious edited volumes published in India and abroad. He is editor of the Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology. His current focus is the archaeology of ‘trade and civilization’ in the context of the early Indian Ocean world.

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Dr. Asma Ibrahim has a doctorate in Numismatic and is a senior archaeologist and museum professional of Pakistan. She established the first Monetary Museum of the Central Bank of Pakistan and is presently serving as its Director. As an archaeologist she has been actively involved in explorations and excavations in Sindh and Baluchistan for more than three decades. Since 2011, in collaboration with a French and Italian team, she has been excavating at the site of Banbhore where she has conducted scientific analysis on glass. She is serving on several consultative committees for the Government of Sindh and sits on the board of different educational institutions. She is the founding member of the Centre for Archaeological and Environmental Research and started another foundation named “Terracotta, a project under Zohra Ibrahim Foundation”. She is the only member from Pakistan of the International Scientific Committee of Glass. She has numerous publications to her credit and more importantly she is an author of children textbooks. Dr. Ibrahim’s groundbreaking work on a Persian mummy has been documented by BBC, Discovery, ZDF, and HBO. She is a Museum consultant for number of museums; she is the founder and president of the Karachi Conference since 2012.

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Dr. Alok Kumar Kanungo works as an Assistant Research Professor in IIT Gandhinagar. He was born in Odisha and grew up in close contact with many indigenous communities of eastern and north-eastern India. His early childhood experiences led him to eventually focus on archaeological and ethnographic studies of indigenous and ancient technology. For the last two decades, Dr. Kanungo has travelled and documented the rich heritage of the Nagas of northeast India, and the Bondos and Juangs of Odisha both in the field and in museums across Europe and United Kingdom. He has worked in many areas where it is difficult to say where anthropology or history stops and archaeology begins. He has studied and published extensively on the subject of glass and glass-bead production, and written or edited twelve books and about five dozens research articles. He has been the recipient of many prestigious awards including Humboldt, Fulbright and Homi Bhabha Fellowships. He has lectured in many universities and research institutes in Taiwan, England, USA, New Zealand, Bangladesh, Italy, France, Turkey, Malaysia, Germany and Thailand, besides India. He is currently working with Thomas Fenn, Shinu Abraham and Laure Dussubieux on an NSF-funded project aiming at determining possible regions of ancient glass production in India using elemental and isotope analysis.

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Dr. Jonathan M. Kenoyer, the George F. Dales Jr and Barbara A. Dales Professor of Anthropology, has been teaching archaeology and ancient technology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison since 1985. He has worked on excavations and ethnoarchaeological studies in both Pakistan and India since 1975. He has served as Field Director and Co-Director of the Harappa Archaeological Research Project since 1986. He has a special interest in ancient technologies and crafts, socio-economic and political organization as well as religion. These interests have led him to study a broad range of cultural periods in South Asia as well as other regions of the world, including China, Japan, Korea, Oman, and West Asia in general. His work has been featured in the National Geographic Magazine and Scientific American and on the website www.harappa.com. He is the author of numerous books and edited volumes on the archaeology of South Asia and the Indus civilization.

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Dr. Jan Kock teaches in the Dept. of Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, Denmark since 1994. He served as the Curator in the famous Aalborg Historical Museum in Denmark (1974-1994). His research contributions have been noteworthy in the field of medieval archaeology, ethnoarchaeology, study of glass and history of technology, and also warfare. He is today one of the foremost European authority in the field of beads and glass studies in general and that of India in particular. Along with Torben Sode he has been authoring a series of research publications on various crafts of India. He has traveled and documented in almost all corners of India where there is evidence of traditional glass technology.

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Dr. Stephen Koob, chief conservator in Corning Museum of Glass, is responsible for the care and preservation of all of the Museum’s collections. This includes cleaning the glass and making recommendations for its handling, storage, display, and movement. He also oversees the maintenance and repair of objects in the Museum’s conservation lab, and provides documentation of such objects throughout their repair. He is an expert in dealing with “crizzling,” a condition that affects unstable glass. Dr. Koob has recently taken over the chairmanship of Technical Committee 17, which studies the Archaeometry and Conservation of Glass, as part of the International Congress on Glass. He is the author of the book, Conservation and Care of Glass Objects (2006). Koob holds an MA in Classical Archaeology from Indiana University, and a B.Sc. in Archaeological Conservation and Materials Science from the Institute of Archaeology, University of London. Before joining the Museum staff in 1998, Koob worked for 11 years as conservator, specializing in ceramics and glass, at the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.

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Dr. Joanna Then-Obłuska is an Assistant Professor in the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology at the University of Warsaw and a research associate in the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, specializing in the archaeology of Northeast Africa. After taking part in various excavations and surveys in Israel and Egypt (2003-2007), she wrote her PhD on burial customs of nomadic people in ancient Egyptian deserts. Since then her projects focus primarily on issues of society and economy, looking at ancient Sudanese and Egyptian beads and jewelry, both in terms of their materials and techniques. She has worked with beads from the Red Sea port sites (Marsa Nakari, Quseir, and Berenike) as well as from the neighboring Eastern Desert sites (Sikait and Shenshef) to understand the economic role of bead imports in the Nile Valley during the time of intensive Indian Ocean trade. Her study of origin of glass beads found in Sudan is based on results of chemical composition analysis using LA-ICP-MS method.

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Dr. Thilo Rehren is the A.G. Leventis Professor for Archaeological Sciences at the Cyprus Institute in Nicosia, Cyprus, where he leads the research centre for Science and Technology in Archaeology and Culture (STARC). Trained originally as an Earth Scientist, with a doctorate in volcanology, he worked for nearly ten years as a research scientist at the German Mining Museum in Bochum specializing in ancient high-temperature technologies to produce various metals, alloys and glass. In 1999 he joined the University College London (UCL) Institute of Archaeology as Professor for Archaeological Materials and Technologies, from 2011 to 2016 he led the development of UCL Qatar as a center of excellence for archaeology, museology and conservation based in Doha, Qatar. He has published well over 150 peer-reviewed journal papers, with a current h-index of 34 (Google Scholar), covering topics from early magnesium alloys to platinum metal, Bronze Age, Roman-Byzantine and African glass making, lead-silver smelting and refining, brass making, copper smelting, crucible steel production, and more.

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Dr. V. Selvakumar is a faculty member in the Department of Maritime History and Marine Archaeology, Tamil University, Thanjavur. He completed his doctoral research and post-Doctoral research from Deccan College, Pune. He was a faculty member at the Centre for Heritage Studies, Tripunithura, Kerala from 2003 to 2007, and the Department of Epigraphy and Archaeology of Tamil University, Thanjavur, from 2007 to 2017. He was a Nehru Trust for the Indian Collections at the Victoria and Albert Museum (NTICVAM) Visiting Researcher at the Centre for Maritime Archaeology, Southampton University in 2004. With a NTICVAM UK Visiting Fellowship in 2018, he was trained in Ceramic Studies at UCL and the British Museum. His research interests include archaeology of India, prehistory, maritime history and archaeology, archaeological theory, heritage management, history of science and technology, ceramic studies, Indian Ocean Cultural interactions, and ecocritcism.

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Dr. Ravindra N. Singh works as a Professor in the Archaeology Department of the Banaras Hindu University (BHU). He received his PhD from the Department of Ancient Indian History Culture & Archaeology of BHU with a dissertation dealing with the archaeo-technological study of ancient Indian glass. He is also trained in applied spectroscopy. He obtained additional training on ancient material analysis in different countries including Russia, Israel and the UK. He conducted several projects focusing on the archaeo-metallurgy of South Asia and in recent past has been working on Environmental Changes and its impact on Bronze Age (Harappan) Settlement in Western Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. He was a co-director of several excavations including Bahola, Karnal, Haryana, Dabli Vas Chugta, Hanumangarh, Rajasthan, Excavations at Burj, Fatehabad, Haryana, etc. Dr. Singh has published more than 100 articles and presented his work at many international conferences.

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Torben Sode, is the proprietor of Glass Bead Trading, Denmark and an independent glass researcher. He has travelled all around the world in search of questions related to glass in general and glass makers in particular. His search for continuity in tradition has resulted in some of the well referred works on glass bead and bangle productions at Purdalpur, glass production at Jalesar and glasswork at Kapdwanj. He is an expert in glass conservation and has worked on many traditional glass working centres in Europe as well. Invariably his publications include references to the people who work on glass.


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Dr. Massimo Vidale teaches archaeology at University of Padua, Italy. He got his PhD at the Oriental Institute of Naples, with a thesis on the agate and steatite bead making workshops of Mohenjo-Daro, Sindh, Pakistan. Later, he continued to study the prehistoric bead-making industries of the Indo-Pakistani Subcontinent, taking part in fieldwork at the sites of Mehrgarh, Harappa, Chanhu-Daro, and in the last years in the Swat Valley, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. In India, for three seasons he co-directed the Khambhat Bead Project with J.M. Kenoyer (University of Wisconsin, Madison) and K.K. Bhan (University of Baroda). His research on the early bead-making industries of the Sub-continent includes a study dealing with the coral beads of the prehistoric and early historic periods. He is one of the foremost experts on trade relationships between the ancient Indus and Mesopotamian civilizations.

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Dr. Bhuvan Vikrama did his schooling at Nagpur, Agra and Sarnath and obtained his Master degree in Ancient Indian History, Archaeology and Culture from Ram Manohar Lohiya Avadh University, Faizabad in 1988. From the same University he got his PhD in 2000 on the topic entitled ‘Decline of the Indus Valley Civilization: Socio-Economic Factors’. He joined Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) in 1997 as Assistant Archaeologist and since 2012 he is working as Superintending Archaeologist, and is at present posted at Bhopal. His noteworthy contributions are in excavations at Lalkot, Humayun’s Tomb and Shalimar Bagh, Delhi; Siswania, Ayodhya, Ahichhatra, Harinagar and Sakatpur, Uttar Pradesh, and Dholavira, Gujarat. He has, so far, published more than two dozens of research papers on a variety of topics. Finds of a glazed goblet and other objects from Harinagar appears to be among the oldest glass finds in Indian sub-continent.